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Table 2 Pairwise ρ values calculated using the Mann-Whitney test for number of times explicit authentication was used for the tasks that were significantly different

From: Understanding user perceptions of transparent authentication on a mobile device

Task Group Participant category
   All Some None
Read document All NaN < 0.0008
  Some < 0.0008
  None
Take photo All 0.3681 0.0347
  Some 0.1224
  None
Send email All < 0.00002 0.0147
  Some 0.7066
  None
Change PIN All < 0.0005 0.5828
  Some < 0.00008
  None
Make international call All 0.0012 1.000
  Some 0.0012
  None
  1. ρ<0.05 are significant (bolded values). The comparison between the “All” and “Some” categories for the Read Document task is NaN because there were no occurrences of explicit authentication for either category.