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Table 1 Total number of explicit authentication attempts per experimental group (All, Some and None) for each task

From: Understanding user perceptions of transparent authentication on a mobile device

Task Group ρ Value
  All Some None  
Read document 0 0 16 < 0 . 0 0 0 1
Take photo 0 1 8 0.0436
Send email 0 10 23 0.0008
View photo 5 10 17 0.1290
Make local call 1 0 1 0.5958
Change device PIN 2 10 1 0.0009
Make international call 5 19 5 < 0 . 0 0 0 1
Totals 13 50 71  
Median 1 10 8  
Mode 0 10 1  
Std. Dev. 2.27 7.13 8.61  
  1. The last column shows statistical significance calculated using the Kruskal-Wallis test. ρ<0.05 are significant (bolded values).